## Programming Exercises

For Chapter 5

THIS PAGE CONTAINS programming exercises based on material from Chapter 5 of this on-line Java textbook. Each exercise has a link to a discussion of one possible solution of that exercise.

Exercise 5.1:In all versions of thePairOfDiceclass in Section 2, the instance variablesdie1anddie2are declared to bepublic. They really should be private, so that they are protected from being changed from outside the class. Write another version of thePairOfDiceclass in which the instance variablesdie1anddie2areprivate. Your class will need methods that can be used to find out the values ofdie1anddie2. (The idea is to protect their values from being changed from outside the class, but still to allow the values to be read.) Include other improvements in the class, if you can think of any. Test your class with a short program that counts how many times a pair of dice is rolled, before the total of the two dice is equal to two.

Exercise 5.2:A common programming task is computing statistics of a set of numbers. (A statistic is a number that summarizes some property of a set of data.) Common statistics include the mean (also known as the average) and the standard deviation (which tells how spread out the data are from the mean). I have written a little class calledStatCalcthat can be used to compute these statistics, as well as the sum of the items in the dataset and the number of items in the dataset. You can read the source code for this class in the file StatCalc.java. Ifcalcis a variable of typeStatCalc, then the following methods are defined:

calc.enter(item);whereitemis a number, adds the item to the dataset.calc.getCount()is a function that returns the number of items that have been added to the dataset.calc.getSum()is a function that returns the sum of all the items that have been added to the dataset.calc.getMean()is a function that returns the average of all the items.calc.getStandardDeviation()is a function that returns the standard deviation of the items.Typically, all the data are added one after the other calling the

enter()method over and over, as the data become available. After all the data have been entered, any of the other methods can be called to get statistical information about the data. The methodsgetMean()andgetStandardDeviation()should only be called if the number of items is greater than zero.Modify the current source code,

StatCalc.java, to add instance methodsgetMax()andgetMin(). ThegetMax()method should return the largest of all the items that have been added to the dataset, andgetMin()should return the smallest. You will need to add two new instance variables to keep track of the largest and smallest items that have been seen so far.Test your new class by using it in a program to compute statistics for a set of non-zero numbers entered by the user. Start by creating an object of type

StatCalc:StatCalc calc; // Object to be used to process the data. calc = new StatCalc();Read numbers from the user and add them to the dataset. Use 0 as a sentinel value (that is, stop reading numbers when the user enters 0). After all the user's non-zero numbers have been entered, print out each of the six statistics that available from

calc.

Exercise 5.3:This problem uses thePairOfDiceclass from Exercise 5.1 and theStatCalcclass from Exercise 5.2.The program in Exercise 4.4 performs the experiment of counting how many times a pair of dice are rolled before a given total comes up. It repeats this experiment 10000 times and then reports the average number of rolls. It does this whole process for each possible total (2, 3, ..., 12).

Redo that exercise. But instead of just reporting the average number of rolls, you should also report the standard deviation and the maximum number of rolls. Use a

PairOfDiceobject to represent the dice. Use aStatCalcobject to compute the statistics. (You'll need a newStatCalcobject for each possible total, 2, 3, ..., 12. You can use a new pair of dice if you want, but it's not necessary.)

Exercise 5.4:TheBlackjackHandclass from Section 5.5 is an extension of theHandclass from Section 5.3. The instance methods in theHandclass are discussed in Section 5.3. In addition to those methods,BlackjackHandincludes an instance method,getBlackjackValue(), that returns the value of the hand for the game of Blackjack. For this exercise, you will also need theDeckandCardclasses from Section 5.3.A Blackjack hand typically contains from two to six cards. Write a program to test the

BlackjackHandclass. You should create aBlackjackHandobject and aDeckobject. Pick a random number between 2 and 6. Deal that many cards from the deck and add them to the hand. Print out all the cards in the hand, and then print out the value computed for the hand bygetBlackjackValue(). Repeat this as long as the user wants to continue.In addition to

TextIO, your program will depend on Card.java, Deck.java, Hand.java, and BlackjackHand.java.

Exercise 5.5Write a program that let's the user play Blackjack. The game will be a simplified version of Blackjack as it is played in a casino. The computer will act as the dealer. As in the previous exercise, your program will need the classes defined in Card.java, Deck.java, Hand.java, and BlackjackHand.java. (This is the longest and most complex program that has come up so far in the exercises.)You should first write a subroutine in which the user plays one game. The subroutine should return a

booleanvalue to indicate whether the user wins the game or not. Returntrueif the user wins,falseif the dealer wins. The program needs an object of classDeckand two objects of typeBlackjackHand, one for the dealer and one for the user. The general object in Blackjack is to get a hand of cards whose value is as close to 21 as possible, without going over. The game goes like this.First, two cards are dealt into each player's hand. If the dealer's hand has a value of 21 at this point, then the dealer wins. Otherwise, if the user has 21, then the user wins. (This is called a "Blackjack".) Note that the dealer wins on a tie, so if both players have Blackjack, then the dealer wins.

Now, if the game has not ended, the user gets a chance to add some cards to her hand. In this phase, the user sees her own cards and sees

oneof the dealer's two cards. (In a casino, the dealer deals himself one card face up and one card face down. All the user's cards are dealt face up.) The user makes a decision whether to "Hit", which means to add another card to her hand, or to "Stand", which means to stop taking cards.If the user Hits, there is a possibility that the user will go over 21. In that case, the game is over and the user loses. If not, then the process continues. The user gets to decide again whether to Hit or Stand.

If the user Stands, the game will end, but first the dealer gets a chance to draw cards. The dealer only follows rules, without any choice. The rule is that as long as the value of the dealer's hand is less than or equal to 16, the dealer Hits (that is, takes another card). The user should see all the dealer's cards at this point. Now, the winner can be determined: If the dealer has gone over 21, the user wins. Otherwise, if the dealer's total is greater than or equal to the user's total, then the dealer wins. Otherwise, the user wins.

Two notes on programming: At any point in the subroutine, as soon as you know who the winner is, you can say "

return true;" or "return false;" to end the subroutine and return to the main program. To avoid having an overabundance of variables in your subroutine, remember that a function call such asuserHand.getBlackjackValue()can be used anywhere that a number could be used, including in an output statement or in the condition of anifstatement.Write a main program that lets the user play several games of Blackjack. To make things interesting, give the user 100 dollars, and let the user make bets on the game. If the user loses, subtract the bet from the user's money. If the user wins, add an amount equal to the bet to the user's money. End the program when the user wants to quit or when she runs out of money.

Here is an applet that simulates the program you are supposed to write. It would probably be worthwhile to play it for a while to see how it works.

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