The first test will take place in class on Wednesday, October 8. It will cover course material through Friday, October 3. From the textbook, this includes: Chapter 1, especially Sections 1.1 through 1.3, Section 1.5, and some general ideas from Section 1.4; Chapter 2, especially Sections 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, 2.5, and 2.6.1; and Chapter 3, Sections 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3. You are also responsible for Labs 1 through 4, and for aspects of Java programming that were covered in lecture.
The test will include: some shorter essay-type questions such as definitions; longer, more conceptual essay questions about general network principles; questions about network configuration; and questions about socket programming and the Java Socket API and about threads in Java. You might be asked to write some basic Java code with sockets, such as code to contact a server and exchange some data. You might be given some Java code and asked to explain it. The test will be four pages long, with room for answers.
Here are some of the terms and ideas that you should know for the test:
packet-switching and packet-switched networks comparison with circuit-switched networks the network core packet-switches in the network core: routers the network edge: access networks ISPs -- Internet Service Providers hosts: computers on the network edge layered protocols why layered protocols are used encapsulation in protocol layers headers, added and used by the different layers what routers do how queuing is used at routers and how it can lead to dropped packets IP addresses The five layer Internet protocol stack: Application layer (messages) Transport layer (segments) Network layer (datagrams) Link layer (frames) Physical layer (bits) Responsibilities of layers in the Internet protocol stack Transport layer: process-to-process delivery of application-layer messages Network layer: host-to-host delivery of transport layer datagrams, across multiple networks and routers Link layer: host-to-host delivery within a single network Physical layer: transmission of bits between directly connected devices application and transport layer are implemented in hosts on the network edge application layer: uses transport layer services for process-to-process delivery implements its own architectures, protocols, and policies uses a client/server model on the Internet server "listens" for communications from client at a known IP address and port HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol used for communication between web servers and clients (browsers) standard port number is 80 a request/response protocol stateless (no state information is automatically preserved between requests) request format: request line, headers, blank line, and (for POST command) data request line example: GET /index.html HTTP/1.1 some request headers: Host, Connection, If-modified-since response format: status line, headers, blank line, data status line example: HTTP/1.1 200 OK status codes: 200 OK, 404 Not Found, 403 Forbidden, etc. some response headers: Content-Type, Content-Length, Connection MIME types and why they are used in HTTP persistent connections (Connection: keep-alive vs. Connection: close) Web caching and web proxies SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Mail agents and mail servers SMTP used to send mail from mail agent to server and from server to server other protocols (IMAP, POP, webmail) are used to retrieve mail from server traditionally used a plain text conversation on port 25 message headers From:, To:, and Subject: -- part of the mail message SMTP commands MAIL FROM:, RCPT TO:, part of the "envelope", not the message MIME was introduced to enable binary mail attachments, non-ASCII characters, etc. DNS: Domain Name System distributed database record types: A, CNAME, NS, MX root DNS servers TLD (top-level domain) and TLD servers autoritative name server for a domain local DNS servers canonical names and aliases DSN queries and answers how a DNS server looks up an IP address caching in DNS and the time-to-live field in DNS database records Peer-to-peer applications why they can be faster and more efficient than pure client/server applications some basic ideas of BitTorrent (what is does, trackers, peers) multiplexing and demultiplexing in the transport layer TCP (Transmission Control Protocol): connection-oriented, reliable communication, with congestion control UDP (User Datagram Protocol): simple, unreliable process-to-processes delivery UDP checksums and error detection the UDP header: source and destination port numbers, length, checksum, data UDP does not do congestion control Wireshark how Wireshark lets you observe network traffic and packet contents basic network tools: ping, traceroute, nslookup, ifconfig, telnet why do HWS computers have different IP addresses when seen from outside HWS? socket programming in Java programming basic TCP clients and servers class ServerSocket: constructor: serverSocket = new ServerSocket(port) major method: clientSocket = serverSocket.accept() class Socket: constructor for client side: socket = new Socket(host,port) on sever side, returned by serverSocket.accept(); major methods: socket.getInputStream(), socket.getOutputStream(), socket.close() using socket streams to send and receive messages blocking in serverSocket.accept(), new Socket(), and read operations on Sockets running a server in an infinite loop to handle a sequence of client connections queueing of connection requests for serverSocket.accept() threads and parallel processing why servers are multithreaded thread pools basic ideas of Java threads the Thread class and its run() method the difference between thread.start() and thread.run() blocking queues and the producer/consumer problem